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It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker. Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret. Thank you. Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker. I noticed that, whenever Puma Punku is being discussed, people often ask whether or not the H-Blocks were designed to interconnect.
I found two sources that may shed light on this question, it won't completely demystify the Puma Punku riddle but it might help getting a bit closer to the true intentions of the builders. But first, let's have a look at two rather special block fragments that can be found at the Puma Punku site:.
How were the H-blocks made and for what purpose were their intricate patterns designed? What is the more important question to answer? The implication of the former is clearly that the masonry skills needed to manufacture them depended upon tools far more advanced than mechanical saws or copper chisels.
The implication of the latter is that buildings once existed that exhibited a level of civilisation far higher that what orthodox archaeology is willing to admit. Let us not ignore the following vital point in the secondary question of whether H-blocks were meant to fit together and in similar technical questions about their function: the official history of ancient South American sites like Pumu Punku is bunk.
As mentioned, I think the carefully worked material does exhibit an industrial-style look that appears to be somewhat out of place and time. Also, official history usually tends to lag behind and let's not forget: there was a time when all this was even thought to be inca stonework.
At least we got that idea out of the way and know that this is definitely pre-inca work. But the question remains: how far do we have to go back in time to figure out where all this started? So its a good thing. Also, the incredible sarcophagus of our lord Pacal, even a pyramid was constructed to protect that amazing thing. What were the purpose of the H-blocks An ancient Hillary campaign AttitudeProblem: Couldn't agree more.
Hate also comes to mind.Puma Punku is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia that is steeped in wonder and mystery. The architecture found in the ruins astounds archaeologists and historians and has inspired advanced ancient civilization and ancient alien theories. The unique nature of the site raises curiosity regarding its builders, when it was constructed, and its purpose. These mysteries have arisen ever since the Inca civilization first laid eyes on the ruins of a site that was abandoned centuries before they came across it.
Stone blocks at Puma Punku, Bolivia. Posnansky was one of the first modern explorers to examine the site but his hypothesis continues to have many supporters. Archaeologist Neil Steede, for example, has discussed how the astronomical alignments of the main temple at the site do suggest that it was built to coincide with the summer and winter solstices and the spring equinox as these events would have been seen 17, years ago.
Another group of archaeologists used the carbon dating method to date the construction of Puma Punku to between AD. People who disagree with this later date often argue that the radiocarbon dating results provided by anthropology professor William H. Isbell of the University of Illinois are inaccurate and provide an unreliable date range. Today, Puma Punku is little more than an assortment of interesting weather-worn stone ruins at first glance, but scholars believe it was once a wonderous site for the Tiwanaku culture.
It is one of the main features of the Pre-Columbian Tiwanaku archaeological complexwhich also includes the Akapana and Akapana East stepped platforms, the Kalasasaya, Putuni, and Kheri Kala enclosures, and the Semi-Subterranean Temple.
There is also evidence of buried homes and irrigation systems laying beneath and between the various features of the Tiwanaku complex. Virtual reconstruction of an entire andesite building at Puma Punku.
Vranich, Amateur archaeological excavation and looting are believed to have occurred repeatedly over the centuries. Several stones have been repurposed for other construction projects, and scholars also believe that many pieces of jewelry, ornaments, metal artifacts, and bright potsherds have been dug up and removed.
In the past, the Tiwanaku culture had made the area an agricultural and trading center which may have supported up topeople during its heyday.
Tiwanaku was the major culture in the region between and AD, and they controlled not only the Lake Titicaca areabut also stretched their hold over other parts of Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. A reed boat on Lake Titcaca. However the Tiwanaku complex was suddenly abandoned sometime around AD. The general belief is that droughts and possibly civil unrest caused the inhabitants to seek refuge in the surrounding hills.
Others say people left due to an earthquake and possibly a huge wave hitting the site. Either way, when the Inca people reached the site in it was evident that Tiwanaku had been deserted for centuries. But the Inca were quick to realize the sacred nature of the site and soon added their own mythical story to it. Puma Punku is a large site which expands across a distance exceeding the dimensions of two football fields. It was once an earthen mound with carved red sandstone walls that would have shone in the sun.
Archaeological evidence suggests that it once had large courtyards on the eastern and western sides and a wide courtyard at the center. The most intriguing thing about Puma Punku is the stonework. Puma Punku Stone Blocks — Bolivia. Visitors still marvel at the geometric wonders of the matching H-shaped blocks with approximately 80 faces placed in a row, and the precise cuts and the regularity of the stones — suggesting prefabrication and mass production were employed.Fist weapons dnd 5e
The conventional explanation for how the stones were worked says that they were first pounded with stone hammers to create depressions, then ground and polished smooth with sand and flat stones. Stone block at Puma Punku, Bolivia.There are many theories about the strange fascinating stone blocks that are found scattered at the ancient Bolivian site of Puma Punku.
My idea about Puma Punku is based solely on the evidence available, ie, the remaining blocks at Puma Punku. The logic of my idea is quite simple to follow and I have used animated gifs to highlight what I am trying to explain. I understand that the amazing complexity of the design of the H blocks at Puma Punku can spellbind anyone who takes the time to study them closer, and they undoubtedly raise a lot of questions about the reasons for their overwhelming intricacy, but sometimes the answer we seek is right in front of our eyesbut it is too simple or too obvious an answer to be considered by those that hope for a more fantastical explanation.
There are two particular blocks at Puma Punku that I have always thought clearly showed exactly how a H block was used or positioned in the original building which stood on the Puma Punku site. The blocks being aligned by raising the left block until the overlaid green lines meet. This H block does not appear to be interconnected to any other H block.
The H block in this image seems to be sitting on a horizontal platform in blue and it appears to be supporting a lintel in blue that extends to the left and right where the lintel meets a column or block with two and a half crosses carved into it. This intrigued me deeply because there are several blocks at Puma Punku that have two and a half crosses carved into them….
I would like to know if the height of a Puma Punku H block is the same as the height of a two and a half cross block? In the photo below we can see the blue two and a half cross blockand we can also see the yellow block with the other half a cross that would have sat on top of the blue block so making the complete third cross. Or where I can find any recorded dimensions for the various stone blocks remaining at Puma Punku? Tiawanaku Dimensions…. Brien Foerster. Robert Schoch. Videos of Puma Punka.
Like Like. Like Liked by 1 person. Many thanks THL, if any of your followers have any thoughts on my ideas, i would be grateful to hear them….
Thanks so much! That implies that the concept of fracticality was somehow of fundamental importance… interesting to ponder the potential ramifications of that…. Do you know anywhere rhat has the block measurements for the H blocks AND two and half crosses blocks? It is almost pages with lots of illustrations. The only measurements I have ever seen for them was in an original excavation publication from at least 60 years ago. It was shown to me by a couple of German Puma Punku enthusiasts that had made frequent trips there.
They ended selling everything they had and moving down there permanently, in order to continue their research… they had some amazing documentation.
Unfortunately, this was years ago and I no longer have contact info.What causes electric shock feeling in leg
I have found thes. Click to access AA Click to access isbnWe may also earn commissions on purchases from other retail websites. Located in the desert hills of Northern Sudan we find a set of enigmatic Pyramids that resemble their counterparts in Egypt. However, unlike the majestic structures erected in Egypt, the Pyramids of Sudan have remained unnoticed for decades.
The site once served as the primary residence for the rulers of the Kush Kingdom, more famously known as the Black Pharaohs. The enigmatic Pyramids of Sudan range from 5 to 30 meters in height. According to scholars, they were built between and BC and usually face east in order to meet the rising sun. According to scholars, the Pyramids of Meroe feature decorative elements inspired not only by Pharaonic Egypt but by ancient Greece and Rome as well.
The enigmatic—miniature—Pyramids of Sudan featured a rather curious—most likely random—similarity to another ancient site located halfway around the world: the archaeological complex of Puma Punku. Puma Punku is a large ancient temple complex that belongs to the ancient site if Tiahuanaco in Bolivia. The largest of the stones found at the site is 7. It still remains an enigma as to how the ancient builders of Puma Punku—and Tiahuanaco—managed to transport these massive stones from their quarries.
In addition to massive stones, Puma Punku features smaller stones which have become a major object of study, due to their incredibly smooth surfaces, laser-like cuts, sharp corners and perfect shapes.
However, despite the fact that Puma Punku has a lot to talk about, we focus on the curious and perhaps most notable stones of the site: The famous H-Blocks. The incredible H-shaped blocks found at Puma Punku all match each other with extreme precision and fit into each other like Lego blocks.
It is noteworthy to mention that the way the walls of Puma Punku were assembled is outrageously beautiful. Each stone was finely cut to interlock with the surrounding stones allowing its blocks fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar.
Curiously, if we compare the ancient pyramids of Sudan and their beautifully designed entrances to the H-Blocks at Puma Punku, we notice an uncanny similarity that cannot go unnoticed. Whether or not there is more to both of these archaeological sites is another story. However, we did want to point out that at least in terms of design, both archaeological sites may share a small similarity. To compare a building block in Bolivia with the shape of an entire structure made of many pieces does not work for me.
The more interesting questions are: how were the Puma Punku stones cut with such high precision, and what happened to the site to destroy it? It is the Atlantis connection. The people of atlantis may have been wandering to Sudan and Bolivia after the catalysm.What time of day does unemployment get deposited
Ancient Code Community Compose. Here are 20 of the strangest places on Earth by Ancient Code Team. Could this be the lost city of Atlantis?Dual space apk game guardian
Satellite images Post Pagination Next Post Next. Like it? Share with your friends! Previous Post. Remember me. Forgot password?Pumapunku or Puma Punku Aymara and Quechua puma " cougarpuma," punku "door"; Hispanicized Puma Puncu is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, in western Bolivia.
It is believed to date to AD and later. Tiwanaku is significant in Inca traditions because it is believed to be the site where the world was created.
The Pumapunku complex consists of an unwalled western court, a central unwalled esplanadea terraced platform mound that is faced with stone, and a walled eastern court. At its peak, Pumapunku is thought to have been "unimaginably wondrous,"  adorned with polished metal plaques, brightly colored ceramic and fabric ornamentation, and visited by costumed citizens, elaborately dressed priests, and elites decked in exotic jewelry.
Current understanding of this complex is limited due to its age, the lack of a written record, and the current deteriorated state of the structures due to treasure hunting, lootingstone mining for building stone and railroad ballast, and natural weathering.
The Pumapunku is a terraced earthen mound that is faced with blocks. It is On the northeast and southeast corners of the Pumapunku, it has metre foot wide projections that extend This structure consists of a stone terrace that is 6. This terrace is paved with multiple enormous stone blocks.
The incredible similarities between Puma Punku’s H blocks and Sudan’s Pyramids
It contains the largest stone slab found in both the Pumapunku and Tiwanaku Site, measuring 7. Based upon the specific gravity of the red sandstone from which it was carved, this stone slab has been estimated to weigh tonnes short tons. The other stonework and facing of the Pumapunku consists of a mixture of andesite and red sandstone. Pumapunku's core consists of clay, while the fill underlying selected parts of its edge consists of river sand and cobbles instead of clay.
Excavations have documented "three major building epochs, in addition to small repairs and remodeling". The area within the kilometer separating the Pumapunku and Kalasasaya complexes has been surveyed using ground-penetrating radarmagnetometryinduced electrical conductivityand magnetic susceptibility.
The geophysical data collected from these surveys and excavations have revealed the presence of numerous man-made structures in the area between the Pumapunku and Kalasasaya complexes.Lost Ancient Technology Of Jordan: Petra
Researchers have worked to determine the age of the Pumapunku complex since the discovery of the Tiwanaku site. As noted by Andean specialist, W. Isbell, professor at Binghamton University a radiocarbon date was obtained by Vranich  from organic material from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill forming the Pumapunku. C14, calibrated date.
Since the radiocarbon date came from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill underlying the andesite and sandstone stonework, the stonework must have been constructed sometime after AD — The excavation trenches of Vranich show that the clay, sand, and gravel fill of the Pumapunku complex lie directly on the sterile middle Pleistocene sediments.
These excavation trenches also demonstrated the lack of any pre-Andean Middle Horizon cultural deposits within the area of the Tiwanaku Site adjacent to the Pumapunku complex.
The largest of Pumapunku's stone blocks is 7. The second largest stone block found within the complex is 7. Its weight has been estimated to be Smaller andesite blocks that were used for stone facing and carvings came from quarries within the Copacabana Peninsula about 90 kilometres 56 miles away from and across Lake Titicaca from the Pumapunku and the rest of the Tiwanaku Site.
Archaeologists argue that the transport of these stones was accomplished by the large labor force of ancient Tiwanaku.
Several theories have been proposed as to how this labor force transported the stones, although these theories remain speculative. Two of the more common proposals involve the use of llama skin ropes and the use of ramps and inclined planes. In assembling the walls of Pumapunku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with the surrounding stones. The blocks were fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar. One common engineering technique involves cutting the top of the lower stone at a certain angle, and placing another stone on top of it which was cut at the same angle.
However, the blocks do not have the same dimensions, although they are close. They were initially pounded by stone hammers, which can still be found in numbers on local andesite quarries, creating depressions, and then slowly ground and polished with flat stones and sand. Tiwanaku engineers were also adept at developing a civic infrastructure at this complex, constructing functional irrigation systems, hydraulic mechanisms, and waterproof sewage lines.
Pumapunku was a large earthen platform mound with three levels of stone retaining walls.Further down we can see that the percent of those always interested in watching football, given that they were always interested in watching tennis was 87.
The percentages in the last column (Row Total) are always relative to the total number of cases.Dodge trailer wiring diagram 7 pin diagram base website 7 pin
Multi-way Tables with Control Variables. When only two variables are crosstabulated, we call the resulting table a two-way table. However, the general idea of crosstabulating values of variables can be generalized to more than just two variables. For example, to return to the "soda" example presented earlier (see above), a third variable could be added to the data set.
This variable might contain information about the state in which the study was conducted (either Nebraska or New York). GENDER SODA STATE case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4 case 5.
NEBRASKA NEW YORK NEBRASKA NEBRASKA NEW YORK. The crosstabulation of these variables would result in a 3-way table: STATE: NEW YORK STATE: NEBRASKA SODA: A SODA: B SODA: A SODA: B G:MALE 20 30 50 5 45 50 G:FEMALE 30 20 50 45 5 50 50 50 100 50 50 100 Theoretically, an unlimited number of variables can be crosstabulated in a single multi-way table.
However, research practice shows that it is usually difficult to examine and "understand" tables that involve more than 4 variables. It is recommended to analyze relationships between the factors in such tables using modeling techniques such as Log-Linear Analysis or Correspondence Analysis.
Graphical Representations of Multi-way Tables. You can produce "double categorized" histograms, 3D histograms,Batches (cascades) of graphs can be used to summarize higher-way tables (as shown in the graph below).
Crosstabulations generally allow us to identify relationships between the crosstabulated variables. The following table illustrates an example of a very strong relationship between two variables: variable Age (Adult vs. Child) and variable Cookie preference (A vs. COOKIE: A COOKIE: B AGE: ADULT 50 0 50 AGE: CHILD 0 50 50 50 50 100 All adults chose cookie A, while all children chose cookie B.
However, in real-life, relations between variables are typically much weaker, and thus the question arises as to how to measure those relationships, and how to evaluate their reliability (statistical significance). The techniques used to analyze simultaneous relations between more than two variables in higher order crosstabulations are discussed in the context of the Log-Linear Analysis module and the Correspondence Analysis.
The Pearson Chi-square is the most common test for significance of the relationship between categorical variables. This measure is based on the fact that we can compute the expected frequencies in a two-way table (i.
A New Look at Puma Punku and the H-Block Mystery
For example, suppose we ask 20 males and 20 females to choose between two brands of soda pop (brands A and B). If there is no relationship between preference and gender, then we would expect about an equal number of choices of brand A and brand B for each sex.Right from the beginning of our email correspondence, we have been impressed by the quality, dedication and effort you have put into making our tour of Scotland enjoyable. Thank you for going beyond what I would normally expect.
The tour and the associated paperwork and maps which you arranged were all marvellous and a good representation of Scotland. Whilst I thought that two days on Skye would be far too long, it was just right. Thank you again for your assistance and I shall endeavour through trip advisor and friends to spread the word about your wonderful company. Nordic appear to be professional, aware of the best locations to visit and stay.
The suggested tour is well balanced between places to see and covering the distance. We were very impressed with the standard of accommodation given that we only booked "standard".
We're just on the train back from Edinburgh, and wanted to say a big thank you for all your help organising our trip. We had an amazing time travelling round Scotland, and all the organization couldn't have been better. Everything went so smoothly - all the information you provided was so detailed and really helped us make the most of our trip.
And all the accommodation was just amazing!.
Puma Punku: This Ancient Andean Site Keeps Everyone Guessing
We've had such a great time, thank you again for all your help. I will definitely recommend Nordic Visitor to my friends. We were glad to have the printed maps supplied by Nordic Visitor. We were very pleased with the decision to up-grade from 'Standard' to 'Superior' accomodation. The 'Commodore Class' on the Ferry was very welcome. The car was upgraded as well, fantastic. We loved staying at the Basecamp Trapper's hotel.
The place was really interesting and the staff very nice. We pass along a special thanks to Lise at the hotel for her exceptional customer service and friendly personality.
Megalithic Madness – Puma Punku H Blocks do not Interconnect?
We also enjoyed the trip to Isfjord Radio, our wonderful guide Harri, and the great meals they served. Our 2 hour maxibus trip around Longyearbyen the day we arrived was a good introduction to the area. We made 2 changes to the package tour itinerary, and they ended up being the best parts of the trip. The first was a hike to Trollsteinen, which we included in our itinerary from the beginning, and it was amazing (for those who love to hike).
The second was a change we made at the last minute. On our last day we were signed up for an ATV trip, but it would have been to basically the same place we had seen the first day on the maxibus trip. We heard about a 10-hour boat trip to Pyramiden and Nordenskjoldbreen and booked it the night before. We loved this trip, with all we learned and the opportunity to see more of Spitsbergen.
It added so much to our Svalbard experience, and we were so grateful we added this in. Something else that we really enjoyed on our trip was the Svalbard museum.
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